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The 24th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM2021) incorporating the 2nd Regional Conference of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (iEMSs) was held at The University of Sydney and International Convention Centre Sydney, Darling Harbour, from Sunday 5 to Thursday 9 December 2021 with a workshop day on Friday 10 December.

It was held jointly with the 28th National Conference of the Australian Society for Operations Research, and the DSTG led Defence Operations Research Symposium (DORS 2021). The International Microsimulation Association also joined.

The theme for this event was Modelling for action with a flood of data and a cloud of uncertainty.

Editors: Vervoort, R.W., Voinov, A.A., Evans, J.P. and Marshall, L.

Citing papers in these proceedings

Papers from these proceedings should be cited using this format:
Humphrey, G.B., Maier, H.R., Wu, W., Mount, N.J., Dandy, G.C. and Dawson, C.W. (2021). Beyond validation: assessing the legitimacy of artificial neural network models. In Vervoort, R.W., Voinov, A.A., Evans, J.P. and Marshall, L. (eds) MODSIM2021, 24th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand, December 2021, pp. 85–91.
ISBN: 978-0-9872143-8-6.

Responsibility for the contents of MODSIM papers rests with the Authors, with MSSANZ guaranteeing the paper peer-review process. All papers in these proceedings were refereed by at least two independent reviewers.


If the presenting author of an accepted article does not attend the congress, by default the paper will not appear in the proceedings. Under extenuating circumstances, this position may be revisited on a case-by-case basis.

Copyright statement

These proceedings are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International CC BY License (, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you attribute MSSANZ and the original author(s) and source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence and indicate if changes were made. Images or other third party material are included in this licence, unless otherwise indicated in a credit line to the material.

Individual MODSIM papers are copyright of the Authors and Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand Inc. (MSSANZ). MSSANZ is the publisher of the MODSIM Proceedings.


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