The rapid development with technologies of satellite, sensor, communication and computing bring us an unprecedented volume of spatio-temporal data and other relevant data. These "Big Data" provide a great opportunity to strengthen our modelling capability and help to deepen our understanding of global change. However, the volume, heterogeneity, diversity and complexity of the Big Data also present a big challenge to us. For instance, as the amount of the data keeps getting bigger with an exponential rate, the traditional modelling systems may become insufficient or incapable to handle and utilize those large-scale diverse data to deliver meaningful outcomes. Our modelling and simulation practice has to adapt to the new development of the data science. This session expects to attract new thoughts and new approaches to environmental and natural resources modelling in the Big Data era.